JP 3-0, Joint Operations w/Change 1 (Oct 2018)

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JP 3-0, Joint Operations w/Change 1 (Oct 2018)JP 3-0, Joint Operations incorporating Change 1 (Oct 2018), is the keystone document in the joint operations series and is a companion to joint doctrine’s capstone JP 1, Doctrine for the Armed Forces of the United States. It provides guidance to joint force commanders (JFCs) and their subordinates to plan, execute, and assess joint military operations. It also informs interagency and multinational partners, international organizations, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and other civilian decision makers of fundamental principles, precepts, and philosophies that guide the employment of the Armed Forces of the United States.

Often called the “linchpin” of the joint doctrine publication hierarchy, the overarching constructs and principles contained in this publication provide a common perspective from which to plan and execute joint operations independently or in cooperation with our multinational partners, other US Government departments and agencies, and international and nongovernmental organizations.

Joint operations are military actions conducted by joint forces and those Service forces employed in specified command relationships with each other, which of themselves do not establish joint forces. A joint force is one composed of significant elements, assigned or attached, of two or more Military Departments operating under a single joint force commander (JFC). The primary way the Department of Defense (DOD) employs two or more Services (from at least two Military Departments) in a single operation is through joint operations.

The US employs military capabilities in support of national security objectives in a variety of military operations and activities. The purpose of military action may be specified in a mission statement or implied from an order. Operations and activities are characterized as “joint” when they are conducted by a force composed of significant elements, assigned or attached, of two or more Military Departments operating under a single JFC. Distinct military operations and activities may occur simultaneously with or independently of others even within the same operational area (OA). For example, a noncombatant evacuation operation (NEO) may be in the same OA where US forces are conducting COIN operations. Additionally, each may have different root causes and objectives.

Joint Warfare is Team Warfare. The Armed Forces of the United States—every military organization at all levels—are a team. The capacity of our Armed Forces to operate as a cohesive joint team is a key advantage in any operational environment (OE). Success depends on well-integrated command headquarters (HQ), supporting organizations, and forces that operate as a team. Integrating Service components’ capabilities under a single JFC maximizes the effectiveness and efficiency of the force. However, a joint operation does not require that all forces participate merely because they are available; the JFC has the authority and responsibility to tailor forces to the mission.

Unified Action

Whereas the term joint operation focuses on the integrated actions of the Armed Forces of the United States, the term unified action has a broader connotation. Unified action refers to the synchronization, coordination, and integration of the activities of governmental and nongovernmental entities to achieve unity of effort. Failure to achieve unity of effort can cost lives, create conditions that enhance instability, and jeopardize mission accomplishment.

Unified action is based on national strategic direction, which is governed by the Constitution, federal law, and USG policy. Unified action is a comprehensive approach that focuses on coordination and cooperation of the US military and other interorganizational participants toward common objectives, even if the participants are not necessarily part of the same command or organization.

Enabled by the principle of unity of command, military leaders understand the effective mechanisms to achieve military unity of effort. The goal of unified action is to achieve a similar unity of effort between participants. This publication uses the term interorganizational participants to refer collectively to USG departments and agencies (i.e., interagency partners); state, territorial, local, and tribal agencies; foreign military forces and government agencies (i.e., multinational partners); NGOs; and the private sector.

The US Department of State (DOS) has a complementary approach, which defines unity of effort as a cooperative concept that refers to coordination and communication among USG organizations toward the same common goals for success.

JFODS5-1 is Change 1 to our fifth revised edition of The Joint Forces Operations & Doctrine SMARTbook. In addition to new/updated material from the latest editions of JP 3-0 Joint Operations (w/Change 1, Oct ‘18), JP 4-0 Joint Logistics (Feb ‘19), JP 3-33 Joint Task Force Headquarters (Jan ‘18), and JP 3-16 Multinational Operations (Mar ‘19), JFODS5-1 features a completely new chapter on Joint Air, Land, Maritime and Special Operations (JPs 3-30, 3-31, 3-32 & 3-05). Additional topics and references include JP 1 Doctrine for the Armed Forces of the United States (w/Change 1, Jul ‘17), JP 5-0 Joint Planning (Jun ’17), and JP 3-08 Interorganizational Cooperation (val. Oct ‘17).

JFODS5-1: The Joint Forces Operations & Doctrine SMARTbook, 5th Ed. w/Change 1This article is an extract from “JFODS5-1: The Joint Forces Operations & Doctrine SMARTbook, 5th Ed. w/Change 1 (Guide to Joint, Multinational & Interorganizational Operations)” by The Lightning Press. Download a free PDF sample and learn more at: JFODS5-1: The Joint Forces Operations & Doctrine SMARTbook, 5th Ed. w/Change 1 (Guide to Joint, Multinational & Interorganizational Operations). Additionally, for 400 pages of detailed discussion of joint strategic and operational planning refer to Joint/Interagency SMARTbook 1 – Joint Strategic & Operational Planning, 2nd Ed. (Planning for Planners).

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